Now all roads lead to France and heavy is the tread
Of the living; but the dead returning lightly dance.
Edward Thomas, Roads

Monday, January 11, 2021

Map Series #17: Brest-Litovsk

Terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

• Independence of Ukraine, Georgia, and Finland recognized

• Poland and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to Germany and Austria-Hungary

• Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi to Turkey

• The total losses constituted 1 million square miles of Russia's former territory (See map below)

• Later, Russia agreed to pay a large indemnity

Subsequently, however:

• In the general Armistice of November 1918, the Central Powers were forced to renounce the treaty

• Ukraine was recovered in 1919, during the Russian Civil War 

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